Yellowstone National Park Wildlife to Keep an Eye Out For

 Yellowstone National Park is the second-largest park in the U.S. outside of Alaska, and it teams with wildlife. Following are some of the notable mammals in Yellowstone.


Wildlife in Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho) is diverse and abundant. Noted for the many species of plants and animals found within its borders, the park has several types of mammals, including some that are truly majestic. Following is some of the mammal wildlife in Yellowstone.


Wildlife in Yellowstone National Park: Grazing Animals (Bovids)


There are several different species of grazing animals found in the park. American bison are often seen feeding in the open meadows adjacent to wooded forested areas, often in small herds. Mule deer and occasional whitetail deer, as well as elk (which are very numerous in the park), and moose are the deer species that can be found in Yellowstone. Bighorn sheep and mountain goats live in the higher elevations in the park, and pronghorn can be found grazing in meadows and grassy areas.


Predatory Mammal Wildlife in Yellowstone


Black bears and grizzly bears, which feed on vegetation, carrion, and animals that they can catch, live in the park, as do gray wolves, coyotes, and foxes, all of which are the main predators that are found in open areas and meadows. In mountainous, rocky, and heavily wooded areas, cats hunt. Mountain lions hunt larger prey, such as deer in these places, and lynxes and bobcats hunt small rodents and animals like rabbits. Raccoons are at times found in Yellowstone, as are martens, minks, weasels, badgers, and wolverines. Wolverines are rare in the park, but they are some of the most successful hunters and some of the bravest animals, which will confront larger predators such as bears. Otters and skunks also live within the park's boundaries.


Rodents and Other Animals in Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho


There are several types of rats, mice, shrews, and voles that live in Yellowstone. These smaller animals are often preyed upon by coyotes, foxes, members of the weasel family, bobcats, snakes, and birds of prey. Gophers, marmots, beavers, squirrels, chipmunks, and porcupines, as well as rabbits (desert and mountain cottontail, jackrabbits, and snowshoe hares), are often seen in the park's meadows and shrubby areas. Smaller pikas are also found in higher elevations, where they feed on vegetation. Ten different species of bats are also known to inhabit the park.


Wildlife in Yellowstone: Mammal Life


Different animals tend to inhabit different environments within Yellowstone. Although bison, elk, deer, moose, and pronghorn (the fastest animal in the western hemisphere) are usually found in meadows or forested areas in lower elevations, bighorn sheep and mountain goats are seldom seen because they remain more in rocky areas in higher elevations. Wolves and bears tend to be spotted by park visitors in the lower elevations, while felines are more solitary mammals that hunt in more secluded forests or in rocky, mountainous areas. As big cats require large individual territories, they sparsely populate the park, and anyone who gets the chance to see a cougar is lucky indeed.


Wildlife in Yellowstone is diverse and unspoiled. There is likely no better place in the United States to get a better chance to see so many beautiful animals and such natural beauty.


Why Yosemite National Park Should Be On Your USA Bucket List

 Yosemite Valley, pronounced “Yosemitee,” a name meaning “Grizzly Bear” in Native American, is located in California’s Sierra Nevada in the central region of California. Declared a national park in 1890, it is more than a mere beauty spot.


Reasons to see the Spectacles of Yosemite


This extraordinary area contains special features due to its dramatic geological past, namely, pressures within the Sierra fault thrusting huge mounds of granite monoliths upwards and over at an angle. Over millennia, these monoliths have been carved by ice ages, glaciers, and meltwater. 


When the most recent ice age ended 10,000 years ago, the already deep Yosemite Valley was filled with a lake, which slowly silted up. The result is huge granite cliffs overhanging a fertile valley floor. It is no wonder that Yosemite is a catalog of wonders.


Sightseeing the Chief and Half Dome for Challenging Climbs


El Capitan, or the Chief, is one of the tallest sheer cliffs in the world. Overlooking the Merced River and surrounding woodland, it towers a dizzying 3,000 feet (900 meters) above. A similar cliff, the Half Dome, so named because of its sheer cliff face and rounded rear hump, rises 2,200 feet (670 meters) from the valley floor.


Visiting Yosemite Falls and Bridalveil Falls


The seemingly endless Yosemite Falls is the sixth highest in the world and the highest in North America. The waters plummet a staggering 2,425 feet (739 meters) in three huge leaps. Incidentally, several other waterfalls found in the valley are some of the highest in the world. But Bridalveil falls, adjacent to El Capitan, is a little different. It plummets, by comparison, a moderate 620 feet (190 meters) but below, the water suspends itself in a misty veil, explaining the name. 


Sequoia, the Biggest Trees in the World


Amongst the incredible flora and fauna that can be found in the fertile lands of Yosemite Valley is the sequoia tree. Growing to 200 feet (60 meters) or more, they are not as tall as the giant redwoods that can be found in Western California but have more girth and, therefore, bulk. This makes them the biggest in the world. The Grizzly Giant found in the Mariposa Grove is estimated to be 2700 years old.


Travel in Yosemite


Yosemite valley contains an extraordinary amount of special features within one area, namely El Capitan, one of the tallest sheer cliffs in the world, Yosemite Falls, the highest waterfalls in North America, and the sequoia, the biggest tree in the world. This is without considering the extraordinary light effects the weather has upon this dramatic landscape. 


A spectacular view can be found from Glacier Point, 3,300 feet (1,000 meters) above the valley. John Muir, a Scottish conservationist and naturalist who worked tirelessly in the valley, wrote about its beauty, “No temple made with hands can compare with Yosemite…as if into this mountain mansion Nature had gathered her choicest treasures.”


How To Feel More Feminine

 It's three hours before your big first date, with a guy whom you think could be Mr. Right. You want to look your absolute best, which requires feeling your absolute best. But you've had a rough day; you've had to cope with a lot, and you feel much more manly than you would like to. You want to feel soft and feminine, the perfect woman to impress Mr. Right.


So how? How are you going to make yourself feel feminine and beautiful?


Bubble bath time!


Yes, the first thing to do is stick the plug in the drain of the bathtub, crank on the hot water, and pour in a cup of sweet-scented bubble bath. Soaking in water, especially water laced with skin-softening additives, helps to relax you and relieve the stress of your day. It washes away the dirt grime, creating a more feminine mindset.


In the East, harem women would soak for hours in gigantic, bubbly baths, for pretty much the same reason that you are.


Moisturize and Massage


All right, you've been soaking luxuriously in the bath for some time. You get out, pull on your robe, and return to your room.


Now, the next step in making yourself feel more feminine is to massage. Massaging relaxes even further your muscles and makes the skin softer and more supple. You can use either massaging oils or lotion.


Lotions are great everyday moisturizers and work well for massages. Massage oils are wonderful, but they take a long time to sink into the skin. So, if you have somewhere to be within an hour or two, I wouldn't advise massage oils. The massage medium of my preference is gelled body oil because it gives the luxury of oil, but soaks into the skin faster, like a lotion. It essentially gives you the best of both worlds.


You should give yourself a massage within five to ten minutes after getting out of the bath. Massaging within this time period ensures that the softness of your skin from the bath is kept. When massaging, you should use long, elegant, upward strokes. I suggest starting at your feet and slowly working your way up.


Manicure


After washing your hands-free of excess lotion or oil, you have at least a half-hour to wait for the lotion to soak in completely. This would be a great time to polish your nails, another way to get even more into the feminine mindset.


Select a soft, gentle color. Dark colors such as black and dark blue insinuate manliness; reds suggest seductress. For a feminine set, try a soft shell pink, or a French manicure. Remember to do your tootsies too! While you're drying, try reading a romance. Reading a romance can sometimes put you in a romantic mood.


Silk and Lace


You should be feeling pretty feminine by now. But we're not done yet. Now that you feel feminine, it's time to start to look feminine. Wearing silky underclothes keeps you feeling deliciously feminine, which in turn makes you look feminine.


Lace also implies femininity. It's elegant and delicate, just like a feminine woman is. Currently, a lot of lace is in style. However, no matter what the style of the hour is, you should wear what makes you look your best.


There are so many more ways to feel feminine. The latter process is my personal way to get into a feminine mindset, which I utilize before a date, big occasion, or even sometimes just for fun. Create your own process of femininity – maybe add a facial to the mix? Do what you like, and have fun. For when you're having fun, you're at your best.



Traveling to Venice Italy

 Venice is a city built on one hundred and seventeen tiny islands. These islands are man-made, for underneath Venice are hundreds and thousands of wood piles holding them up. Venice is a truly unique city that is an absolute must-see when traveling to Italy or Europe in general.


St. Mark’s Square is the heart of Venice. It has numerous important buildings, all in one centralized location. Take note of the fourteen different winged lions along the square. They are the symbol of Venice.


The square has St. Mark’s Basilica, which is almost one thousand years old. It was built in 1063 at the site of another church, which burned down. It is spectacular, with four thousand square feet of mosaics.  The most spectacular of which is found in the arch towards the nave called the Arch of the Passion. It details the life of Jesus Christ. It embodies many artistic styles, such as Byzantine, Gothic, and Eastern.  Inside, you can see the famous four bronze horses and the Golden Altarpiece.     

The Doges’ Palace housed the government. It was built between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries over a pre-existing castle. It is architecturally interesting because all of the delicate latticework is at the bottom, supporting the massive structure above it.


The Bridge of Sighs is the most famous bridge amongst the many throughout Venice. It connects the Doges’ Palace (where the courtrooms were located) to the prisons. It has its name because of criminals “sighing” during their last brief moment of freedom.


The Marcian Library is one of the most important libraries in Italy, with over a million books and many nautical maps and miniatures. It was built in the sixteenth century and was originally a private collection of books.


The Clock Tower was built in the fifteenth century.  In addition to the clock is the Lion of St. Mark and the “Moors” who ring the bells at designated times. The Bell Tower has a spectacular view of the city, being ninety-seven meters high. It was rebuilt in 1902 after it collapsed.


Some other important sites to see around Venice are the Basilica Della Salute, the Church of Santa Maria del Rosario, the Basilica dei Frari, and the Church of Santa Maria dei Miracoli.


Those interested in touring museums can choose between the Academy Galleries, the School of Saint George, the Ca’Rezzonico (the Museum of the Venetian Settecento), or the Correr Museum.


And last, but certainly not least, are the canals. If you are in Venice, it is absolutely necessary that you hire a gondola and cruise the canals. They are what Venice is famous for (and contrary to popular belief, the canals of Venice do not smell).


If you have the opportunity, you should take a taxi (in Venice’s case, a boat) for a cruise along the Grand Canal – this is where you can see numerous old buildings, and it is absolutely beautiful. Taxis need special permission to do this, so if you can arrange this, it is a must! You will not be able to see those buildings from the land.


Don’t forget to pick up a Venetian mask as a souvenir! 



The Supervolcano At Yellowstone National Park

 Beneath Yellowstone lies an immense supervolcano. Should a volcanic eruption occur, it would almost certainly result in nuclear winter and an immense loss of life.


The eruption of a supervolcano is easily one of the earth's most destructive natural forces. More powerful than the strongest earthquake or hurricane, the eruption of one of these massive volcanoes could result in a climate change on earth that would be felt for decades. Greg Breining explains the details of supervolcanos and their destructive potential in his book, Supervolcano: The Ticking Time Bomb Beneath Yellowstone National Park.


How Is a Supervolcano Different From a Normal Volcano?


A normal volcano occurs when pressure beneath the earth builds and is periodically released via eruption. Over time, these eruptions form a cone. The caldera is the opening at the center of the volcanic cone through which magma is released.


A supervolcano, however, has no cone through which magma is directed. The caldera of a supervolcano is merely a massive depression within the earth's crust. Like a normal volcano, magma will build beneath the crust until the pressure must be released. The caldera of a supervolcano, however, is much larger than that of a normal volcano and capable of releasing over a trillion tons of magma when it erupts, resulting in a nuclear winter for the earth's inhabitants.


Supervolcano Locations Throughout the World


Modern science has discovered evidence of past supervolcanos in the following areas of the world:


* Yellowstone National Park in the U.S.

* The Grampian Mountains of Scotland

* Sumatra, Indonesia

* Idaho in the U.S.

* Colorado in the U.S.

* Lake Taupo in New Zealand

* Island Park on the Wyoming/Idaho border in the U.S.

* Whakamaru in New Zealand.


Many supervolcano locations, however, are well hidden by ocean waters.


What Would Happen if a Supervolcano Exploded?


The initial effect of a supervolcano eruption would be devastating to the surrounding area. All life in the vicinity of the eruption would be immediately destroyed, not by hot magma, but by a poisonous ash cloud traveling at speeds of up to 100mph. Although global climate change would be an inevitability, Dr. Robert B Smith, a geophysicist with the University of Utah, claims that the change would be in effect for no more than a few decades and would not usher in a new Ice Age.


Nuclear winter, however, would almost surely occur. Nuclear winter is when the earth is blocked from the sun's rays by events on the surface. In this case, the blockage would be caused by ash in the atmosphere.


Perhaps the greatest threat of a supervolcano eruption would not be the temperatures but the ever-present ash. Dr. Jeffrey Wheeler published a study, "Tephra as Dental Abrasive", in the issue of The Journal of Archaeological Science, demonstrating that volcanic ash is much harder than human teeth. Volcanic ash would be spread everywhere following the eruption of a supervolcano, and both humans and animals would find it incredibly difficult to eat. Not only would the ash harm teeth, but it would be dangerous to ingest.


The Earth is Due for Another Supervolcano Eruption


The entirety of Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming is an enormous caldera for a supervolcano. The Yellowstone supervolcano is said to erupt roughly every 600,000 to 800,000 years. The last eruption of the Yellowstone supervolcano occurred over 630,000 years ago.


Although an eruption at Yellowstone is a common feature of many recent doomsday scenarios, scientists point out that an eruption in the near future is unlikely. Volcanic activity in the area is closely measured by the University of Utah, the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, and the United States Geological Survey (USGS).




The Incredibly Dynamic Yellowstone

 Yellowstone National Park has been seismically active for over two million years. Even to this day, the place is a dynamic geothermal hotspot.


Yellowstone National Park in the northwest corner of Wyoming is the oldest National Park in the United States and is certainly one of the most interesting volcanic sites in the world. 


Almost the entire park of Yellowstone is sitting on an ancient and still active caldera. The caldera is covered by multiple stratified lava flows. The last lava flow occurred over 75,000 years ago. The area still remains seismically active with thousands of small earthquakes each year and geothermal venting through its geysers such as the venerable Old Faithful and boiling mud pots.


Yellowstone Sits Atop a Supervolcano


A supervolcano is a volcano that has produced unusually large eruptions in the past that are 8 in magnitude on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI), as documented at Questions about Supervolcanoes by the United States Geological Survey. The caldera that forms most of Yellowstone is approximately 34 miles by 45 miles in area and was formed when a huge volcanic eruption collapsed the emptied magma chamber and created the depression.


Super eruptions have occurred at Yellowstone many times in the past, and at least one of the two million years ago was thousands of times more powerful than the eruption of Mount St. Helens as a comparison. A larger eruption over two million years ago left a gaping hole that was larger than the state of Rhode Island. 


For most of the twentieth century, the caldera beneath Yellowstone was thought to be extinct until University geophysicist Bob Smith published his survey in 1979 that the ground beneath Yellowstone Lake was doming and forcing the lake levels to rise. Subsequent earthquake swarms in 1985 caused the dome to subside. There is no doubt now, though, that the ancient volcano is very much alive.


Earthquake Swarm at Yellowstone National Park


An earthquake swarm is a series of earthquakes that occur in a burst of activity in a relatively short period of time. An earthquake swarm was detected in the park and was one of the largest swarms ever recorded there. This is not an alarming development, however, as Yellowstone has experienced earthquake swarms many times before.


Interestingly, earthquakes as far away as Alaska have caused earthquake swarms in Yellowstone or have altered the action of hot springs and geysers for months after they occurred, per a study from the University of Utah.


The Deep Magma Chamber and the Movement Up and Down of the Caldera


With the aid of sound waves, the magma chamber plume underneath the park is thought to be about 400 miles deep. The caldera height is constantly in flux and is rising at the rate of about three inches a year which is higher than the historical norm.


Yellowstone is truly a geothermal hotspot and shows no signs of losing that status anytime in the foreseeable future.


Safety Guidelines For Visitors To Yellowstone

 Whether hiking, exploring, or driving through Yellowstone, the diversity of the area requires care to ensure that the wildlife and the geothermal features remain pristine.


Yellowstone National Park, located in northwestern Wyoming, USA, offers visitors abundant wildlife and more geothermal features in one location than anywhere else in the world. Visiting Yellowstone requires an understanding of the safety rules and common sense that must be observed at all times.


Respecting Wildlife in Yellowstone


Abundant wildlife is visible throughout Yellowstone, and most of it can be viewed from the safety of a vehicle. Elk, moose, wolves, coyotes, bears, and of course, bison (buffalo) are the primary inhabitants of the 2.2 million-acre park.


Never approach any wildlife, whether on foot or in a vehicle.

When buffalo or elk are crossing the road, maintain as much distance as possible.

If an animal is encountered while on foot, do not make eye contact with it and do not cross or block its path.

Do not feed the wildlife. This is strictly prohibited!


Signs are posted at all wildlife viewing areas and along with trailheads that provide additional guidance and instructions for visitors.


Yellowstone's Geothermal Features


Geothermal features include mud pots, steam vents, geysers, and fumaroles. In the Upper Geyser Basin, the water temperature is 180 degrees Fahrenheit. Water boils at 199 degrees Fahrenheit at this altitude (7,366 ft.), and the average temperature of the water shooting from Old Faithful is 203 degrees Fahrenheit.


Never touch the water!

Geothermal features should never be compromised by throwing things into them or disturbing them in any way.

Do not step off marked trails and boardwalks as the boiling water and hot mud can cause physical harm and/or death.

Keep an eye on young children and pets. Do not allow them to wander unattended.


Day Hiking in Yellowstone


With the hundreds of miles of hiking trails in Yellowstone, visitors can find a hike to meet any fitness level. Follow these important safety tips when planning that next hike.


Check the weather before you leave.

Ask a ranger for current wildlife activity on the trail.

Dress appropriately. Wear hiking shoes and layered clothing.

Bring plenty of water-based on the length of the hike.

Tell someone where you are hiking or sign in at trailhead.


Backcountry Hiking and Camping


Yellowstone provides one of the most pristine wilderness areas in the world. When taking advantage of this, always remember to follow these common-sense guidelines.


Do not hike or camp alone.

File any required overnight permits.

Utilize proper food storage receptacles.

Carry out everything you carry in.


Yellowstone National Park offers visitors many unique features in terms of wildlife and geothermal activity. Given this uniqueness, remember to follow all safety rules regarding wildlife, driving, hiking, and camping in order to fully appreciate the wonders of this national park.